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Key to Identifying the Woody Plants of the Nature Center

1. Leaves acicular, needle-like, or scale-like; usually persistent Go to step 2

1. Leaves broad and flat. Deciduous Go to step 10

2. Leaves awl-like or scale-like; low, prostrate creeping shrub Dwarf Juniper (Juniperus communis)

2. Leaves needle-like Go to step 3

3. Leaves borne in fascicles or groups of 2-5 Go to step 4

3. Leaves scattered, solitary, not in groups Go to step 6

4. Leaves occurring in groups of 2-3 Go to step 5

4. Leaves occurring in groups of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus)

5. Leaves longer, 4-6 inches

5. Leaves shorter, 1-3 inches Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)

6. Leaves flattened in cross-section, flexible, soft to the touch Go to step 7

6. Leaves square or diamond-shaped in cross-section, stiff, sharp-pointed Go to step 8

7. Leaves dark green on top. Appearance of being borne on two, opposite sides of twig

7. Leaves lighter green. Spirally arranged on the twig Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)

8. Twigs pubescent. Leaves yellowish-green, lustrous Red Spruce (Picea rubens)

8. Twigs not pubescent, glabrous instead Go to step 9

9. Twigs reddish-brown, long lateral branches. Cones 10-18 cm. Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

9. Twigs yellowish-brown or gray. Leaves glaucous. Cones 3-5 cm White Spruce (Picea glauca)

10. Growth form a vine Go to step 11

10. Growth form not a vine, rather a tree or shrub Go to step 14

11. Leaves simple Go to step 13

11. Leaves compound Go to step 12

12. Leaves pinnately compound having 3 coarsely toothed leaflets Poison Ivy (Rhus radicans)

12. Leaves palmately compound having 5 coarsely toothed leaflets Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

13. Leaves broad cordate. Coarsely toothed, sometimes lobed Wild Grape (Vitis sp.)

13. Leaves ovate to elliptical, unlobed, margins serrate Bittersweet (Celastrus sp.)

14. Growth form a shrub or small understory tree Go to step 15

14. Growth form a tree Go to step 27

15. Opposite or sub-opposite leaf arrangement Go to step 16

15. Alternate leaf arrangement Go to step 20

16. Opposite leaf arrangement Go to step 17

16. Subopposite leaf arrangement; leaves dark green on top; arcuate venation Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)

17. Leaf margin serrated Go to step 19

17. Leaf margine entire or nearly so Go to step 18

18. Leaves with clearly arcuate venation Dogwoods (Cornus sp.)

18. Leaves without arcuate venation Honeysuckles (Lonicera sp.)

19. Petiole winged Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago)

19. Petiole glandular at upper end Highbush Cranberry (Viburnum trilobum)

20. Twigs having thorns, spines or prickles Go to step 21

20. Twigs not having thorns, spines or prickles Go to step 22

21. Twigs having long thorns. Leaves variable Hawthorns (Crataegus sp.)

21. Twigs having prickles. Often very stout Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora)

22. Leaf margin entire or wavy, not toothed, or lobed Go to step 24

22. Leave margin serrated Go to step 23

23. Leave margin serrated

23. Leaf margin doubly serrated

24. Leave with 4-5 pairs of arcuate lateral Alternate-leaf Dogwood (Cornus alternifolia)

24. Lateral veins not arcuate. Straight Go to step 25

25. Leaves rounded to egg-shaped Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)

25. Leaves much longer than wide, lance shaped, elongated Go to step 26

26. Leaf margin entire. Pleasant spicy smell when crushed Spice Bush (Lindera benzoin)

26. Leaves and twigs with many silvery scales Silverberry (Elaeagnus sp.)

27. Leaves opposite on twig Go to step 28

27. Leaves alternate on twig Go to step 32

28. Leaves simple, 3-5 lobes Go to step 30

28. Leaves pinnately compound Go to step 29

29. Leaflets with large teeth; shapes variable; twigs with waxy covering

29. Leaflets entire, sharp and size consistent; twigs not waxy White Ash (Fraxinus americana)

30. Leaf with three lobes; serrated margin Go to step 31

30. Leaf five lobed, entire. Sides of terminal lobe parallel

31. Leaves green on both sides; two bud scales

31. Leaves whitish beneath; several bud scales

32. Leaves simple or lobed Go to step 27

32. Leaves pinnately compound Go to step 33

33. Leaves with more than 10 pinnae Go to step 34

33. Leaves with less than 10 pinnae Go to step 36

34. Twig extremely hairy; bud totally covered by petiole

34. Twig not hairy. Stout, smooth Go to step 35

35. Terminal leaflet present, well developed. Similar to lateral leaflets Butternut (Juglans cinerea)

35. Terminal leaflet absent or poorly developed Black Walnut (Juglans nigra)

36. 7-9 leaflets. Terminal bud naked, sulfur yellow

36. 5-7 leaflets. Terminal bud having distinct scales

37. Petiole laterally flattened in cross-section Go to step 38

37. Petiole terete or rounded in cross-section Go to step 40

38. Leaves ovoid, round, finely serrated. Twigs waxy

38. Leaves dentate. Teeth sharp pointed or rounded Go to step 39

39. Teeth large, rather sharp pointed Big-tooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata)

39. Teeth rounded, each tipped by a minute gland

40. Leaves round or sharp lobed Go to step 41

40. Leaved not lobed Go to step 42

41. Lobes sharp-pointed, each tipped by a bristle

41. Lobes round-pointed, not bristle-tipped

42. Leaf margin finely or coarsely serrated or dentate Go to step 45

42. Leaf margin doubly serrated. The teeth having teeth Go to step 43

43. Surface of leaf scabrous, rough sandpaper texture

43. Surface of leaf smooth to the touch Go to step 44

44. Twigs with distinctive wintergreen taste; buds hairy

44. Twigs with wintergreen taste; buds rounded, greenish E. Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)

45. Leaf finely serrated Go to step 46

45. Leaf dentate; lateral veins each ending in a tooth Go to step 47

46. Leaves cordate, heart shaped. Bud with two valvate scales

47. Leaves elongated. Buds short, rounded American Chestnut (Castanea dentata)

46. Leaves oblong, underside of main-vein with orange pubescence

47. Leaves no elongated. Buds 4-5 times longer than wide

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